Credits : Business2community

Credits : Business2community

 

The eye-catching surge in the smartphone users has encouraged entrepreneurs to take the ‘BIG’ step of shifting from desktop to mobile devices. Considered as one of the most flourishing business areas, enterprise mobile app development has immensely revolutionized the way business tasks are executed. Since the launch of this new programming language, Swift app development has been a hot topic among many top enterprises. Leading mobile application development companies believe that this is the right time to turn to a fully featured and more approachable coding language for iOS app development. With app development in Swift, businesses have identified a huge scope in developing enterprise applications, endowed with multiple functionalities that enhance the user experience, satisfy customer needs and generate maximum revenue. We have seen the ascent of certain progressive innovations in recent years, similar to the ones like IoT, Cloud Computing and Big Data bringing very fast changes all through the industry, similarly like app development in Swift.

Since the launch of this new programming language, app development in Swift has always been in the middle of all discussions among enterprises. It has a higher quality code, is easier to maintain and has a very good performance level. After its launch, Apple’s new language has the potential to become the effective coding language for creating immersive, responsive, consumer-facing enterprise applications.

The app team at LinkedIn has chosen to go with Swift for the SlideShare app development because its syntax is very simple, English-like and very expressive. According to them, Swift’s functional programming features and focus on safety was the driving force, for the switch. Recently, app development in Swift has become the talk of the times, being a good enterprise choice for apps like Lyft, LinkedIn, Getty Images and American Airlines. The early adopters of Apple’s new language end-to-end approach are already seeing the value it brings to their business.

The open source nature of Swift has made it one of the most preferred app programming languages among iOS app developers who can’t afford to invest in the tool for building stunning enterprise apps. App development in Apple’s new language provides excellent opportunities for building apps easily and quickly. Other hot topic related to enterprise app development in Swift includes – open source libraries and flexibility to create contextual apps on latest iOS versions. Another trend introduced in app development in Swift would be the gradual shift of enterprise apps on the cloud architecture. This move by enterprises has encouraged iOS app developers to indulge in the development of different types of apps for payment processing, content management, CRM, automated billing systems, messaging system and more.

Why will you need Swift? Every business that needs to develop more interactive and faster mobile application on the iOS platform must look for app development in Swift. iOS Swift development would help to bring sensible functional elements into play, reducing the amount of time and overhead for your business operations. Today’s iOS app developers are keeping pace with the latest transitions in the language and utilizing this framework to benefit their global clients. App developers are familiar with the resilient and concise Swift code and follow the best practices of app development in Swift – to create a wide range of apps. The new language is easily understandable and its syntax is very similar to English. Swift moving to the Cloud extends its value globally. Developing Swift apps in the cloud should be simple and fast.

Swift saves enterprise money as they are compiled codes. With an app written in PHP, the server has to compile the code on the fly, which requires computing resources every time. That means less hardware, less money, more safety and more scalability. Over the past seven years, App Sore has paid over $30 billion to iOS app developers. It holds the record of app download at over 100 million, and currently averaging 850 downloads per second. 83% of the iOS users have the latest version as opposed to only 12% of the Android users. Tim Cook repeatedly emphasized enterprise foundations like privacy, security, and trust.

iOS8 was a huge release for the enterprise that appears to have paid off. According to Apple, 98% of Fortune 500 companies have built one or more iOS apps since iOS8 was released.

Apple CEO Cook Tim said – After Swift’s release as an open source project, more than 100,000 apps have integrated Swift code and it has become the number one language project on GitHub. He also said that is so easy to learn and it has the potential to bring many more people into coding.

Key benefits of Swift in Enterprise App Development:
Apart from helping in building secure and robust enterprise app, Swift makes enterprise app development dynamic in the following three ways.

  • Multi-faceted language: It is considered to be a multifaceted programming language that allows iOS app developers to build all types of apps from, including commonly used enterprise apps, and also advanced low-power Apple Watch apps.
  • Open source for enterprise app development: This is a big move by Apple. Before Apple’s new language, Microsoft.NET was the most used open-source language in the enterprise environment. Open sourcing of core libraries enables developers to develop efficient contextual enterprise apps on the latest version of iOS giving rise to streamlined business processes.
  • Cut down on initial app size with Dynamic Libraries: On most occasions, enterprise apps take more time to load. App development in Swift uses dynamic libraries which are directly uploaded to the memory, cutting down on the initial size of the app, ultimately increasing the app performance.

Objective-C is the past and Swift is the future of enterprise app development. The app developed in Swift – truly has lived up to the name, by being fast, of a better quality and offering high performance. With a strong community support, it is a modern day programming language of iOS development. It has proved to be a smarter programming language, one that can create a more direct and meaningful connection between iOS app developers and end users. The new programming language is becoming more popular and, in time may find a home on corporate servers. The possibility of expanding it to the server side made it the most-loved programming language by iOS app developers. Swift on the cloud is radically simplifying the developer experience, and organizations of all sizes can benefit from this accelerated path to productivity. Successful app development in Swift– has made it a preferred language for enterprise use, and it is exciting to know that more and more companies are starting to realize the benefits of this new programming language. There is a massive ecosystem growing around Swift, and by putting the right tools in the hands of iOS app developers, it is assisting enterprises to accelerate their path to productivity. Productivity benefits of the new language do not only come from within the code – a better app with less code – it also comes from development teams enjoying what they do. Hence, Swift, no doubt is a game changer for enterprises.
Read more at http://www.business2community.com/mobile-apps/enterprises-prefer-app-development-swift-01770374#wgjClFGhRc321K8h.99

Credits : Dazeinfo

Credits : Dazeinfo

 

If you’re looking to build a career as an App developer in India, now is a great time. According to a recent study by Hyperlink Infosystem, the average cost to develop a mobile app in India, either on Android or iOS platforms, is almost ten times cheaper than in the United States.

These findings also come as great news for app publishing businesses who may now start looking at the Indian subcontinent for all their app developments. The vast cost savings associated with outsourcing to developers in India has created a thriving environment at this moment for app developers, who are keen, savvy, and skilled.

In 2016, India overtook the US to become the world’s largest country in terms of demands for mobile development courses, Google India said. In the last two years, India saw a whopping 200% YoY growth in search queries for the mobile development courses. The tech start-up boom still unfazed, there have also been companies such as Plobal Apps, providing small and medium-sized businesses with their own powerful apps, at close to one-tenth the actual costs. Further, the technology market in India is a star performer, attracting top tech companies from across the globe, and also providing a very lucrative field for entrepreneurial tech ventures. Factoring in that, India is now a rapidly developing nation moving towards a digital sphere. Hence, the app development space naturally sees a lot of scope for growth.

What are the chief factors driving this demand and growth trajectory in the Indian app development space?

  1. The expanding app ecosystem itself.

The global mobile app store gross revenue is expected to reach USD 102.5 billion in 2020, almost double of what it is now. Emerging markets such as India, Brazil will be driving much of APAC’s staggering growth in 2020. These markets will account for 76% of global app store downloads and 49% of global mobile app store revenue.

  1. The promising smartphone market.

As per findings from market research firm Counterpoint Research, in the third quarter of 2016, the smartphone shipments in India grew 18% more than the global smartphone market, in India.

  1. India’s young, energetic, and tech-savvy demographics.

The number of app developers in India is predicted to reach close to four million by the next year. This would make it the largest developers’ community in the world. As such, the steep growth in demand for apps has provided a very conducive environment for app developer enthusiasts, who no longer see app development as a menial career choice.

App development in India is so much cheaper for various contributing reasons. Right from the abundant availability of technologically skilled human capital, to the rising number of startups and small app development enterprises that offer their services at competing prices. However, app development may cost much lesser in India chiefly because of the amount of time spent on developing the app, and the infrastructure in place. Another key feature driving the low cost is that app entrepreneurs continuously look to lower their costs while still ensuring the quality of their service.

In its findings, Hyperlink InfoSystem provides an overview of the costs associated with the development of Apps in the Indian App market. While it is beyond argument that cost is one of the most critical aspects that businesses consider, the study proceeds to suggest that businesses would still invest in it if they find it worthy.

The elements that make up the gross cost of an app defines how expensive or cheap it is to make. Going by convention, the elements such as the app idea, the app’s functional layout followed by design, and finally the app development stage, make up the app development process. The app development stage is closely followed by the app’s testing, debugging, and deployment – all of which contribute to the cost break up of an app.

Credits : Exchangewire

Credits : Exchangewire

 

ExchangeWire Research’s weekly roundup brings you up-to-date research findings from around the world, with additional insight provided by Rebecca Muir, head of research and analysis, ExchangeWire. In this week’s edition: Global development of VR; Longer content migrating rapidly to mobile; Ad fraud in mobile apps; and Tech less important to TMT companies.

Global development of VR

Brands and advertisers that utilise VR can tap into higher consumer engagement and attention rates, and are also seen as more innovative, finds research by YuMe. Nearly two-thirds of respondents (63%) have tried an immersive technology, and feel it’s the “next big thing”, while 86% have heard of VR.

VR is considered the most advanced immersive technology. Six in every ten respondents (60%) feel the VR helps create engaging experiences, compared to 53% for 360-degree video. Similarly, 51% feel brands that use VR are innovative, compared to 45% for 360-degree video.

The survey also finds that customers who have used immersive technology firsthand, have a better opinion of it that those who have not. More than half (51%) of respondents who have used an immersive technology are more likely to engage with an ad if it was in 360-degree video, compared to 36% of total respondents. Nearly two-thirds (60%) of those who have used immersive technology also feel brands utilising VR create a positive view of them, compared to 43% of total respondents.

Longer content migrating rapidly to mobile

There were more video views on mobile devices in Q3 than on any other device, according to Ooyala’s Q3 2016 Global Video Index. The research also found changes in the type of video watched on mobile devices.

Longer-form content – video over five minutes in length – accounted for nearly half (48%) of all viewing on smartphones; that’s more than double the 23% seen a year ago. In addition, nearly one-third of all mobile viewing (30%) was of video over 20 minutes in length.

There is an increasingly mobile society in established markets like the United States and Western Europe; growth there will continue as consumers continue to demand it. Amazon’s decision to offer downloadable content for offline viewing – and Netflix’s more recent decision to do the same – are also acting as drivers.

Sports viewing on mobile is also on the up. A year ago, Ireland was the only country in which sports video views topped 50% on mobile devices. Now, Europe sees mobile video views of sports-related content at 54%, higher than the 49% global average.

Ad fraud in mobile apps

More than half of all uncertified apps displayed malicious activity, and even some certified apps were just as toxic, finds a study by Sizmek.

About 9% of mobile apps generating ad traffic were not certified by the app stores. Eight in every ten (80%) of these apps were on Android devices, with 56% of this group proven to be malicious. Half of illegally downloaded iOS apps were proven to be malicious. All told, 52% of all uncertified apps were found to be malicious. Of certified apps, a small fraction (1.5%) engaged in ad fraud.

From approximately 20 billion impressions, 10% of all mobile apps traffic came from apps not certified by the app stores. Three-fifths (60%) of these impressions came from Android devices. Over a third (37%) of this group was proven malicious, with the rest either low quality or not found (and most likely malicious). Two-fifths (40%) of the uncertified traffic came from iOS devices, and 43% of these apps facilitated illegal downloads, while 57% were unstable apps. Both groups were likely largely malicious.

Tech less important to TMT companies

Despite advancements in technology and artificial intelligence in the workplace, 62% of enterprises in the Tech, Media, and Telecoms (TMT) sector are seeking to employ more staff to drive their company forward, Colliers latest research reveals. This demonstrates the ‘human factor’ still plays a critical role in business development.

Technology was viewed as the least important strategic resource by all but one company. Yet most businesses surveyed did expect big change and efficiency improvements through the introduction of new technology in the business and the workplace, especially the development of cloud-based systems.

The consensus among all the companies surveyed was that human resources (HR) remains the most important strategic resource, which is needed to drive business growth over the coming years. Without the ability to tap into pools of technical talent, the business would not be able to grow at the desired rate.

Credits: Indianexpress

Credits: Indianexpress

 

Samsung is not willing to kill off its Galaxy Note series, a brand that it has developed since 2011 just because one of the device in the series was prone to fires, and explosions in some cases. Samsung mobile chief, DJ Koh has confirmed the company will be moving on from the Galaxy Note 7 disaster and will be building the Galaxy Note 8.

“I will bring back a better, safer and very innovative Note 8,” Koh said in an interview with Cnet. He also talked about Samsung’s plan to rebuild its credibility with its customers, which was tainted by many of its Note 7 devices exploding or catching fire – leading to two messy product recalls by the company.

This new development refutes earlier claims that Samsung will be killing off its ‘Note’ brand altogether following the Note 7 debacle. The company and the Note series received a lot of negative attention, and its market value was stripped by 8 per cent (estimated to be $18 billion) following its cancellation of the program. There is no information regarding specs of the Galaxy Note 8 as of yet.

A report by Russian website HiTechMail had suggested that more than 50 per cent of the people in South Korea had developed a negative view of the ‘Note’ brand.

Meanwhile, Samsung is preparing to launch an update to its Galaxy S7 smartphone; with the Galaxy S8 set for a March 29 launch. Galaxy S8 promotional images suggest the phone will be doing away with the physical home button and getting thinner bezels. It is expected to be the first device running Qualcomm’s new Snapdragon 835 processor.

Credits : Fabric

Credits : Fabric

 

Twitter’s mobile development platform Fabric has been sold to Google for an undisclosed sum.

Until today’s announcement, Fabric was one advantage Twitter held over Facebook after Zuckerberg’s giant shuttered its own ‘Parse’ platform. Clearly, mobile development platforms under the control of social networks are not meant to be.

Developers who use Fabric can at least feel comforted the platform is not being shuttered and may, in fact, have increased support under Google’s stewardship. Parse, for its part, became open-source and can now be found on GitHub here.

All the features which developers love about Fabric will be retained including Nuance speech recognition, Digits user authentication, Answers analytics, and Crashlytics.

Fabric’s entire team will join Google’s Developer Products Group and work alongside the Firebase team which expanded to become a ‘unified app platform for Android, iOS, and mobile web development’ last year.

“When we met the team at Google we quickly realized that our missions are the same – helping mobile teams build better apps, understand their users, and grow their businesses,” Rich Paret, VP of Engineering at Fabric, wrote in a blog post. “Fabric and Firebase operate mobile platforms with unique strengths in the market today. We’re excited to combine these platforms together to make the best mobile developer platform in the world for app teams.”

The move is sure to damage Twitter’s already dicey relationship with developers who haven’t quite restored their faith in the social network after the company implemented token limits for third-party apps.

With the company reporting losses of more than $100 million in the third quarter of 2016, however, it’s clear Twitter is trimming down where it can to reduce its overheads and services it has to maintain to prevent the microblogging service ending up in the position where it has to sell itself or face demise.

Credits ; Thehindu

Credits ; Thehindu

 

Here is good news for pilgrims visiting the abode of Lord Venkateswara. The TTD management is all set to develop a mobile application enabling pilgrims to meet their requirements such as booking of darshan tickets, accommodation, laddu prasadam and ‘e-hundi’ at one go.

Talking to the media, TTD Executive Officer D. Sambasiva Rao on Tuesday said officials of the IT wing had been directed to work in tandem with the TCS in developing the pilgrim-friendly application.

Almost 30 per cent of the devotees are already availing themselves of online darshan tickets over their mobile instruments.

Development of a mobile application with all the features will best suit their requirements. Efforts are on to launch the application in eight to 10 weeks. It has also been decided to enhance the upper limit in the online booking of Rs. 300 special entry darshan tickets. Devotees can henceforth book a maximum of 10 tickets under a single transaction as against the existing six.

Credits: Pocketgamer

Credits: Pocketgamer

Kicking off the Mobile Games University track at Pocket Gamer Connects London, The Secret Police CEO Harry Holmwood begins with an apology.

It was not his idea to call this keynote “The Mobile Game Development Commandments,” he says, and he has little desire to proclaim his superior wisdom from on high.

But embracing the concept nonetheless, his slides show key mobile gaming teachings carved into stone tablets.

“Thou shalt be Supercell,” reads the first. And while tongue-in-cheek, there is a point here.

First is the studio’s commitment to being very careful to only hire excellent, talented individuals – something that can be implemented even in more modest developers.

“We think we’ve hired good people, and the secret to that is testing,” says Holmwood.

Another is its ‘fast fail’ philosophy, although that presents more difficulties.

“As a company we couldn’t do that, we don’t have the money they have – we couldn’t fail and fail and eventually get a hit,” he considers.

But even if you can’t afford to fail fast Supercell style, he adds that teams shouldn’t be afraid to experience “micro-failures” along the way.

“Thou shalt want to make a mobile game” is Holmwood’s second point.

“I love making mobile games,” he says. “To me, it’s the most exciting place to be in gaming.”

If there’s any shred of reluctance in developing for mobile, then, you shouldn’t be doing it.

By the same token, Holmwood adds: “Thou shalt design for mobile.”

Indeed, The Secret Police’s upcoming debut Dragon’s Watch is designed for one-handed play and doesn’t require the player to change their grip, hold their phone awkwardly or use another finger to reach inconveniently-placed buttons.

“Think of all the times that people want to play a mobile game,” he advises. “They want to play it on the train, they want to play it out and about.”

This is why The Secret Police has developed its own solution to allow Dragon’s Watch to be playable without an internet connection.

“Thou shalt have a business model” is next.

“I speak to a lot of developers who say ‘we don’t know yet if it’s premium or free-to-play,” says Holmwood.

With such core differences between the two business models – and the different demands they put on game design – he believes this is worrying.

Holmwood’s next commandment is intended to help developers find that clarity: “Thou shalt learn from others.”

“My co-founder Ric [Moore] built a system that data-mines the App Store, and we went back several years comparing the download ranks to the grossing ranks,” he explains.

The aim was to identify the games that had a high revenue compared to their downloads rank, and the conclusion was that many of these were Asian RPGs.

This is how The Secret Police arrived at its strategy, and eventually Dragon’s Watch.

“Thou shalt iterate” is Holmwood’s final word of advice.

Dragon’s Watch boasts a scrolling dial at the bottom the screen – inspired by the early iPods – to arrange squad members in a circular formation.

The idea initially arose while prototyping a tower defence game, but the result was too intense. Rather than starting from scratch, though, the team realised there was something worth keeping in the scroll wheel.

Credits: Thenextweb

Credits: Thenextweb

 

Over the past couple of years, Twitter has offered developers numerous services to help them build, test, deploy and maintain their apps as part of its modular Fabric platform. Now, the company is selling it off to Google.

The move is likely an attempt on Twitter’s part to slim down in troubling times. The good thing is that none of Fabric’s useful services – including Crashlytics for reporting crashes, Digits for user authentication, Answers app analytics and Nuance for speech recognition – are going away, as Google will continue to offer them to developers as they are.

The people behind Fabric will join Google’s Developer Products Group and work alongside the Firebase team. During the transition, Digits will continue to be maintained by Twitter.

With that, Twitter is losing most of the ties it had with the developer community at large, and losing the advantage it once had over Facebook after the social network shuttered Parse.

But given that it recorded losses of more than $100 million in the the third quarter of 2016 (PDF), it’s clear that the company has bigger problems to tackle. Dropping Fabric off its list of services to maintain could reduce overheads as Twitter strives to become self-sustaining – or at the very least, stave off death in 2017.

Credits : Gizbot

Credits : Gizbot

 

In the digitally advanced space today, mobile apps have become a part and parcel of our everyday life. As people are getting more and more addicted and dependent on applications to fulfill their daily requirements and make life easy, the entire world has started humming to the tune of mobile applications.

With people being overly dependent on these applications, there is an exponential growth in the number of mobile apps in the past few years. Based on this, both Google Play Store and Apple App Store house hundreds and thousands of applications every year, and the future predicts that the rising number might not drop down anytime soon, instead grow with every passing year.

Similarly, 2016 has also brought about several new mobile apps in the market, especially grocery apps, ride-sharing apps, cloud-based apps and hundreds of other app-based services. Not only this, the passing year has not only brought about apps for smartphones but also for wearables, connected homes, smart cars, IoT-enabled devices, etc.

Given the rapid advancement in the app-centric world last year, heading onto 2017, this year is expected to spring up new surprises in the custom mobile app development space. Let’s take a look at the key mobile app development trends to look out for this year from below.

Swift is the Road Ahead For App Developers

Swift is known as the next gen programming language for the iOS app developers, which is said to be much easier than Objective – C. Swift is asserted to be the future of app developers and is going to gain a wide range of importance in 2017. Reports are such that Swift 2 is soon going to make way for the future of mobile app development space.

Beacons and Location Based Services to Rise

Beacons and Location Based Services to Rise

Location-based services are said to be the key players in 2017 and be one of the major mobile app trends this year. Last year, we did see the emergence of location-based applications like Apple’s iBeacons and Google Beacons. With the advancement of the service, WiFi usage will no longer be limited to restricted areas but will grow beyond these traditional spots and help people attain relevant location-based information, providing a major scope to personalized app marketing.

Image Source

IoT Will be the Next Big Thing

IoT Will be the Next Big Thing

With the wide adoption of cloud-based apps, it is making way for Internet of Things, which is supposedly the next big thing in the tech world. Reports suggest that IoT will be one of the key players and a major trend that will sustain in the app-centric world.

 

M-commerce Will See an Exponential Growth

M-commerce Will See an Exponential Growth

2016 has seen an exponential growth in the M-commerce space. People are now moving from credit and debit cards to wallets and payment apps for shopping and other transactions. These m-commerce apps will now work towards extending its services to wearables and will take a completely different shape in 2017. Hence M-commerce is going to evolve through 2017 and play a major role in the app development space.

 

Apps to be More Secure

Apps to be More Secure

Gartner predicts that most apps might not pass the simple entry-level security test, and 2016 has witnessed several such instances as well. This is exactly when hackers attack by entering the security gaps for stealing sensitive and confidential information. In 2017, app developers are expected to be more careful in terms of security, in order to mitigate the data breach incidents.

Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality

Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality

Both Augmented Reality and Virtual Reality are the future of the tech world and 2016 has seen several glimpses of it, which is expected to expand in 2017. The technological advancements have completely entered the gaming and entertainment industry like Pokémon Go and more. Reports suggest that although VR might certainly lack popularity, AR is expected to gain wide success by the end of 2017.

Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence

AI is going to be a big thing in the tech world. In a report suggested by Gartner, it reveals that there will be a heavy investment in artificial intelligence in 2017 as compared to last year. In 2016, there have been several AI apps released that gained wide popularity like Prisma, Google Now and more. The running year is expected to keep up with the AI mobile application development trends intact and in turn design several new applications.

Cloud-Driven Mobile Apps

Cloud-Driven Mobile Apps

Cloud technologies are on the rise and are entering every phase of life. Moving ahead, cloud computing has finally found its place with mobile apps, which makes it easy for the users to store data securely, which the users can have access to whenever they want. Some such cloud-based apps include Dropbox Google Drive, One drive and more. In the upcoming years, the number of these cloud-based apps are said to exponentially rise.

Enterprise Apps and Micro Apps

Enterprise Apps and Micro Apps

With the emerging startups almost every passing day, the apps world has seen a swift growth in the enterprise apps category. These applications help users restructure, streamline, and in turn manage a crucial business as well. Both enterprise and micro apps like the Facebook messenger or to do list apps makes life extremely easy and are on the rise and is expected experience and rapid growth in 2017.

Credits: Brainbuxa

Credits: Brainbuxa

India overtook the US to become the top country in the world in terms of interest in mobile developer courses in 2016. Search queries in mobile development courses from India saw 200% year on year growth in the last two years with Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra leading with bulk of queries from India.

As indicated by the report, mobile development courses make for 6 per cent IT-related courses that are in huge demand and it is expected that the volume will massively grow owing to the continuous rise in standard mobile developers in India.

“We have seen tremendous response for mobile developer courses from India, with 16,500 students enrolling every month, taking up Android development, mobile web development and learning new cloud-based technology courses,” said Peter Lubbers, Head, Google Developer Training, in a statement.

Mobile development courses are in huge demand in India and it is growing with each passing day. These courses are being offered online and offline both. Major training partners are Simplilearn, Udacity, Edureka, Koenig, Manipal Global, and UpGrad. These are key private partners to provide mobile development courses across India.

In a statement by Krishna Kumar, CEO of Simplilearn, he mentioned that 65 per cent of students in mobile development courses are either college students or fresh graduates’ when compared to US, where 60 per cent students are working professionals.

“While India leads the world in terms of education-related queries, demand for vocational training courses has been steadily rising, comprising 40 per cent of the total search volume growing at a healthy rate of 50 per cent year-on-year,” Google India said.

Beginning 2017, more than 40 private and state specialized colleges will offer the “Android Fundamental” course as a major aspect of standard educational modules.